Interest rates up by 0.5% – June 2023

The Cause and Effect of the Bank of England’s Decision to Increase the Bank of England Base Interest Rate.

The Bank of England with skyscrapers behind

On 22nd June 2023, the Bank of England made a significant decision to increase the Bank of England Base Rate by 0.5%, bringing it to 5%. This move by the central bank has wide-ranging implications for the economy, businesses, and individuals. In this article, we will explore the cause and effect of this hike in interest rates and its potential impact on various stakeholders.

Cause: High Inflation
The primary reason behind the Bank of England’s decision to increase the base rate is the presence of high inflation. Inflation refers to the sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services over time. It erodes the purchasing power of money and disrupts economic stability. By raising the interest rates, the Bank of England aims to control inflation and maintain price stability in the economy.

Effect 1: Impact on Borrowers
One of the immediate effects of an increase in the base rate is higher borrowing costs for individuals and businesses. Banks and financial institutions adjust their lending rates in response to changes in the base rate. Consequently, borrowers may experience higher mortgage rates, loan rates, and credit card interest rates. This can lead to increased monthly payments and potentially reduce the affordability of borrowing, which may impact consumer spending and business investment.

Effect 2: Impact on Savers
While borrowers face the brunt of increased interest rates, savers stand to benefit. Higher base rates generally result in increased savings rates offered by banks and financial institutions. This means that savers can earn higher returns on their savings, potentially encouraging saving and providing an incentive for individuals to set aside more money for the future.

Effect 3: Impact on Currency Exchange Rates
The Bank of England’s decision to raise the base rate can influence currency exchange rates. When a country’s interest rates increase, it often attracts foreign investors seeking higher returns on their investments. This increased demand for the country’s currency can strengthen its exchange rate. A stronger currency can have implications for exports, making them relatively more expensive, which may affect the competitiveness of domestic industries.

Effect 4: Impact on Economic Growth
Changes in the base rate can have a direct impact on economic growth. Higher interest rates can potentially reduce consumer spending and business investment, which are key drivers of economic activity. The increased cost of borrowing can discourage businesses from taking on new projects or expanding existing operations. Similarly, individuals may reduce their discretionary spending due to higher borrowing costs, leading to a decrease in overall economic growth.


The Bank of England’s decision to increase the Bank of England Base Rate by 0.5% reflects its commitment to managing inflation and maintaining economic stability. While the increase may have a negative impact on borrowers and potentially hinder economic growth, it can provide benefits to savers and help control inflation in the long run. Monitoring the effects of this decision will be crucial in assessing its overall impact on the UK economy.

Web Search Results:

  1. Why have interest rates in the UK gone up?
    This Bank of England webpage explains why interest rates in the UK have gone up. It provides insights into the relationship between interest rates and inflation.
  2. Bank Rate increased to 4.5% – May 2023
    This Bank of England webpage highlights the previous increase in the Bank Rate to 4.5% in May 2023, which provides relevant context to the decision discussed in the article.
  3. [When is the Bank of England meeting? What could happen

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